Guardians of the Digital Age: A Comprehensive Guide to Enterprise Cybersecurity and Maturity levels

In today’s digital age, cybersecurity is of paramount importance for enterprises of all sizes. With the increasing frequency and sophistication of cyberattacks, protecting sensitive data and maintaining business continuity have become critical concerns. In this article, we’ll explore the key aspects of cybersecurity and provide practical insights to help enterprises fortify their defenses.

Cybersec Principles

Firstly, cybersecurity is divided into three pillars: Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. It’s known as the cybersec triad.


Concept: Confidentiality ensures that sensitive information is kept private and accessible only to those who have the proper authorization to access it.


Concept: Integrity ensures that data remains accurate and unaltered during its storage, transmission, or processing.


Concept: Availability ensures that systems and data are accessible and functional when needed by authorized users.

Sometimes we hear some kind of “buzz words” such as web applications firewalls, application security, encryption, network security and others, but the enterprise doesn’t have the maturity level to implement these solutions, but, in order to explain this concept, is important to know about the based model to start designing and implementing a cybersecurity strategy.

People, Technology and Process…

Yes, if we are thinking about cybersecurity in companies, we must take in count the people, maybe with high priority before investing in technology. Is a lifecycle process between people, technology and the process into the company and continuous integration to increase the maturity level.

Have clear concepts and well-structured training lay the groundwork for a culture of cybersecurity awareness within an organization. However, it’s crucial to recognize that this awareness extends beyond just knowing the basics of cybersecurity; it involves ingraining these principles into the daily operations of the enterprise. This is where the implementation of policies comes into play. Cybersecurity policies act as the guiding framework that transforms awareness into action. These policies delineate how employees, from executives to front-line staff, should interact with technology and data. They provide clear guidelines on acceptable technology usage, access control, data classification, and incident response procedures. By integrating these policies into the organization’s fabric, a culture of security becomes second nature, reducing the likelihood of human errors or lapses that can lead to cyber incidents. Therefore, the process of cybersecurity awareness should seamlessly flow into the implementation and enforcement of policies, reinforcing good cybersecurity practices at every level.

Maturity Level

There are so many frameworks that can help us to improve our cybersecurity. The concept of maturity level in cybersecurity is defined by the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) is: “A Crawl/Walk/Run-style set of characteristics, practices, or processes that represent the progression of capabilities in a particular discipline and tool to benchmark current capabilities and identify goals and priorities for improvement.”

Before to implement this framework, we must to define the next points and questions:

  1. What are our current cybersecurity practices and policies?
    • Before implementing a maturity model, it’s crucial to assess your existing cybersecurity practices, policies, and procedures. Understanding your starting point is essential for measuring progress.
  2. What are our business goals and objectives?
    • Align your cybersecurity efforts with your organization’s overall business goals and objectives. Determine how cybersecurity maturity can support and protect those goals.
  3. What is the scope of our cybersecurity maturity assessment?
    • Define the scope of the assessment, including which areas of your organization (e.g., network security, endpoint security, data protection) will be assessed for maturity.
  4. Which cybersecurity maturity model is most appropriate for our organization?
    • There are various cybersecurity maturity models available, such as NIST Cybersecurity Framework, CIS Controls, and ISO/IEC 27001. Choose the one that best fits your organization’s size, industry, and goals.
  5. Who are the stakeholders involved in the assessment?
    • Identify the key stakeholders, including executives, IT teams, compliance officers, and legal teams, who will participate in the maturity assessment and decision-making process.
  6. What resources are available for the assessment?
    • Determine the budget, personnel, and technology resources needed to conduct the assessment effectively.
  7. How will you assess and measure maturity levels?
    • Define the criteria and metrics that will be used to assess and measure the maturity levels in various cybersecurity domains.
  8. What is our desired maturity level?
    • Establish clear goals for where you want your organization’s cybersecurity maturity to be in the short and long term.
  9. What are the gaps in our current cybersecurity practices?
    • Identify areas where your organization falls short in terms of cybersecurity maturity and prioritize addressing these gaps.
  10. What are the potential risks and threats to our organization?
    • Conduct a thorough risk assessment to identify the specific threats and vulnerabilities that your organization faces, and how they relate to cybersecurity maturity.
  11. How will you communicate progress and findings to stakeholders?
    • Develop a communication plan to keep all relevant parties informed about the progress of the maturity assessment and any recommended actions.
  12. What are the legal and compliance requirements relevant to cybersecurity?
    • Ensure that your organization complies with relevant cybersecurity laws and regulations, and incorporate these requirements into your maturity assessment.
  13. How will you sustain and continuously improve cybersecurity maturity?
    • Establish a plan for ongoing monitoring, evaluation, and improvement of cybersecurity practices to maintain and enhance maturity levels over time.
  14. What is the timeline for the maturity assessment and improvement efforts?
    • Define a clear timeline and milestones for implementing the maturity model and improving cybersecurity maturity.

For example, the NIST provides one of the best frameworks called Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (C2M2) and Cybersecurity Framework for incident response. The model contains more than 350 cybersecurity practices which are grouped by objective into 10 logical domains. Each practice is assigned a maturity indicator level (MIL) that indicates the progression of practices within a domain.

Each domain is a high level implementation in each cybersecurity pillar (availability, confidentiality and integrity of the data).

And in each domain we have three levels of maturity:

There are other frameworks and all of them provide us the way to implement a cybersecurity maturity level in our organizations such as:


In the digital age, where the reliance on technology is paramount, cybersecurity stands as a critical pillar for enterprises of all sizes. Protecting sensitive data, ensuring business continuity, and fortifying defenses against increasingly sophisticated cyber threats are now top priorities. This comprehensive guide has explored the fundamental principles of cybersecurity, focusing on the triad of Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability, which underpin all cybersecurity endeavors.

Understanding that cybersecurity is not solely about technology but also involves people and processes is essential. Building a culture of cybersecurity awareness within an organization is foundational. It involves instilling the principles of confidentiality, integrity, and availability into the daily operations of the enterprise. The implementation of well-structured policies plays a crucial role in translating awareness into action, providing clear guidelines for technology usage, access control, data classification, and incident response. This integration of policies into the organizational fabric ensures that security practices become second nature, reducing the risk of human errors that can lead to cyber incidents.

Moreover, the concept of maturity levels in cybersecurity, as defined by NIST, offers a structured approach to assess and enhance an organization’s cybersecurity posture. To embark on this journey, organizations must answer key questions, ranging from their current cybersecurity practices and business objectives to the selection of appropriate maturity models and resources. The maturity model provides a roadmap for progress, encompassing domains related to the three pillars of cybersecurity: availability, confidentiality, and integrity. Each domain consists of practices that evolve across three levels of maturity, representing the progression of capabilities within that domain. By implementing maturity models like NIST’s Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (C2M2) and frameworks like NIST Cybersecurity Framework or ISO 27001, organizations can systematically elevate their cybersecurity posture, adapting to an ever-evolving threat landscape.

Cybersecurity is a multifaceted discipline that involves not only technology but also people, policies, and processes. It is imperative for enterprises to adopt a holistic approach to cybersecurity, fostering a culture of awareness and continuously advancing their maturity levels to protect their digital assets and uphold the principles of confidentiality, integrity, and availability.